One of the oldest and among the best-preserved log houses in the metropolitan Atlanta area, the John Thomas Carnes House is thought to have been built about 1828, a date supported by the character of the building’s construction. The house was occupied into the 1950s and was owned by Carnes descendants until the 1980s, when Douglas County acquired much of the surrounding area and established the Clinton Nature Preserve. The building is known as the “Carnes Log House” to distinguish it from the later, wood-framed house built by one of John Thomas Carnes' daughters and her husband in the mid-nineteenth century that is also in the Preserve. Both structures are part of the National Register-listed Carnes-Clinton Farm Historic District.
Figure 1. View north of Carnes House along trace of Clinton Road. (All photographs by author)
This 200-acre park was donated to Douglas County by Ms. Annie Mae Clinton, a great-granddaughter of John Thomas Carnes. The park is required by Ms. Clinton's will to remain in its natural state as much as possible. The park contains nature trails, and open exploration areas.
Few buildings remain from the earliest white settlement of west Georgia and, of those that do, fewer still have survived without major remodeling and additions throughout the twentieth century. In spite of neglect and deterioration in the last half of the twentieth century, the Carnes House represents a rare example of nineteenth-century residential architecture with a degree of authenticity that is seldom found today.
Authorized by the Douglas County Board of Commissioners in 1999,the present study originally included recommendations for stabilization and preservation of the house and its two surviving outbuildings, one a log corncrib, the other a log stable that was already in ruinous condition. The site was badly over-grown, but significant features of the historic landscape could still be identified. The study included a thorough, non-destructive examination of the existing buildings, which documented the building’s evolution and its condition at that time.
The first section of the plan provides a narrative description of the site and its architecture along with floor plans of the buildings. This is followed by an assessment of the existing condition of the site and concludes with a set of recommendations for appropriate treatment of the site and a preliminary project budget. Black-and-white photographs taken in May 1999 are included in the appendix.
The budget for this report did not support extensive historical research, so only the barest outline of the people that built and occupied the Carnes House was developed for this report.
The great-grandson of a Scotch-Irish family that immigrated to New England in 1680, John Thomas Carnes was born in 1787 in North Carolina, probably in Granville County. He was, the son of Joseph and Comfort Ann Cash Carnes, natives of Maryland who had migrated to North Carolina by the end of the Revolution. By 1810, they may have already moved into northeast Georgia, and by the 1830s into west Georgia in the vicinity of Villa Rica.
In 1828, the last of the Creek Indian claims to land in Georgia were extin-guished, throwing west Georgia open to land-hungry pioneers. It would be another ten years before the Cherokees were driven from the state in the infamous Trail of Tears. Joseph and Comfort Cairns are thought to have settled in Carroll County. She was one of fourteen charter members of the New Hope Primitive Baptist Church, near Villa Rica, Georgia, in 1828. It is the oldest Baptist Church west of the Chattahoochee River in northwest Georgia.
Figure 2. View northwest of Carnes House.
John Thomas Carnes and his wife Mary had several children, including at least three sons, Joseph, Richard, and Frederick, and three daughters, Mary Ann, Nancy, and Loritha. They are said to have settled in what became Carroll County even before the Indian claims had been extinguished in 1828. He and his sons built the present log house on land that was later drawn by Elizabeth Farmer in the 1832 Georgia land lottery. Many of the “fortunate drawers” in the land lotteries never occupied their claims or intended to and Farmer may have been only too happy to pay Carnes $200 for her claim.
John Thomas Carnes died in 1860 and was buried at the New Hope Primitive Baptist Church at Villa Rica. His wife, who had already died, was also buried in that cemetery, both apparently in unmarked graves. By that time, their daughter Mary Ann (born 1833, died before 1880) had married Christopher Columbus Clinton (born June 1832, died after 1910). Around 1860, they built the wood-framed house that is still standing in the Clinton Nature Preserve not far from her parents’ log house. They had at least four children, including their oldest son Charles M. Clinton (1862-1923), who was born in that house. Charles Clinton and his wife Harriet (1873-1954) were the parents of Annie Estelle Clinton (1896-1983), after whose death the Clinton Nature Preserve was created on the old Carnes-Clinton farms.
The Carnes House is located on the southwest side of the Clinton Preserve on an abandoned portion of Pool Road. Pool Road was once a well-traveled thoroughfare connecting the old river crossings near Rivertown in south Fulton County with Villa Rica and northern Carroll County. the road continued across Keaton Creek toward Villa Rica, 2½ miles to the northwest. Two abandoned houses, badly overgrown and deteriorated, remain standing on the north side of old Pool Road a few hundred yards northeast of the Carnes House and there are reported to be two more house sites that can be identified south of the power company’s right-of-way but none of these sites have been investigated.
The old road forked just northeast of the Carnes house with the main route to the west running north of the house. The other fork turns south and runs past the house, spring and outbuildings. There may also have been a drive or road way that looped around the rocks on the northwest side of the house but this was probably not a public road.
Figure 3. Site plan for John Thomas Carnes House. (T. Jones, 1999)
The house itself sits less than twenty feet from the old public road bed. The house was built at the edge of large natural rock outcrops that are especially pronounced around the northwestern side of the house and in the eroded road bed to the northeast. The rear of the kitchen and dogtrot were built on a rock outcropping as well.
If Carnes followed typical patterns, he would have used timber cut from his property with which to construct his house. At least one stump left over from the initial clearing of the site in the late 1820s is still visible under the northwest corner of the original pen. The entire site appears to have been clear cut at some point in the mid-twentieth century. The walnut trees may be the only trees that pre-date the second- and third-growth timber and undergrowth that have engulfed the site over the last fifty years.
Although badly overgrown, features of the original yard that surrounded the immediate vicinity of the house can still be identified. The yard was in large part defined by a low terracing of the land that runs in a shallow arc from the rock outcroppings on the northwest side of the house to the small stream that flowed from the spring along the road 100' south of the house. During the antebellum period, when livestock, especially hogs, were free-roaming, a rail fence probably encircled the house yard although no physical evidence for such an enclosure has been located.
In addition, the Carneses built rock retaining walls about 8' in front of the house and generally parallel to it. There may have been some sort of stepped entrance in the wall in front of the dogtrot but that is not clear amid the existing jumble of stones and vegetation in the area. At its northern end, the stone wall ends in a small concave arc that may have encircled a large tree that was left standing on the site but for which no evidence is now visible. To the south, a shallow row of stacked stones appears to continue the line of the retaining wall another 20' beyond the south end of the house.
Across the road from the house, another stone retaining wall creates what may have been a bed for ornamental shrubs and flowers, as suggested by the presence of Oriental spirea above the southern end of the wall. Winter jasmine is growing off the northwest corner of the house and a rose is climbing in the trees about 30' from the north end of the house. Common day lilies can also be noted around the site and there may be spring-flowering bulbs and other non-native ornamental plants as well beneath the modern undergrowth. While the individual plants of these non-native species are not old, they represent the sort of ornamental plant material that is often found on nineteenth and early twentieth century farmsteads.
A pair of cedar trees, which were also a typical feature on the landscape of many 19th-century farmsteads, was planted in the front yard of the house, but only the stumps of these trees remain. A number of younger cedars have volunteered around the site. Behind the house, just west of the terrace, bottles and other debris indicate the site of an old trash dump that was probably associated with early twentieth century occupancy of the house.
The spring is about 8' from the old road bed midway of the house and the outbuildings and is flanked by a shallow terrace in the hillside that rises on the east side of the road. The spring is partially curbed by three stone slabs, generally 6" thick and about 24" long, set upright on three sides of the spring. The slabs on each side have been tooled to slope toward the front. Broken stones in front of the spring may represent a fourth slab or may be an indication that stones paved part of the surface around the spring. Probably in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century, a terra-cotta pipe, 24" inside diameter and with a flared end, was inserted upright in the spring so as to provide an additional basin in which the spring water could accumulate without being contaminated by surface runoff.
Figure 4. Floor plan of John Thomas Carnes House. (T. Jones, 1999)
Figure 5. View east (front) side of Carnes House.
The Carnes Log House dates to the late 1820s, according to the National Register nomination, and is an outstanding example of the kind of vernacular housing that typified the Southern frontier in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Although, by one estimate, there were perhaps ten to twelve thousand log buildings remaining in Georgia as late as the 1950s, many of these have since been lost and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources’ Historic Structures Survey indicates that only a very few have retained their architectural integrity.
The Carnes House is particularly important because it so well exemplifies that vernacular building tradition and was almost entirely hand-made to a degree not often noted in buildings from the second quarter of the nineteenth century. By then, sawn lumber was readily available and many of the log buildings from the antebellum period in the western Georgia Piedmont were built with roof rafters and often floor and ceiling joists made from machine-sawn lumber. Goodwin’s (ca. 1835) in DeKalb County, the George Power House (ca. 1845) and the nearby Power-Hyde House, both in Cobb County, were all built in this manner. John Thomas Carnes, however, either could not afford or did not want the expense of sawmill lumber. Instead, he built the log pens and dogtrot of his house almost entirely of materials found on the site and built up his roof with log gable ends tied together with long log purlins. He did, however, use saw-milled lumber for flooring and, probably, to construct simple board doors, and he used at least some machine-cut nails to fix them in place.
The original house consisted of the single, log pen and full-width front porch at the north end of the present structure. The smaller, log pen, which was used as a kitchen, and the dogtrot between the two pens were added at an early date, using similar materials
Figure 6. View of northeast corner of log pen.
and construction methods. Two differences between the two pens suggest that they were not constructed at the same time or, at least, not by the same person: the character of the half-dovetail joinery and the chamfering of the projecting beams on the kitchen, a feature not present on the original pen. In addition, the structure of the kitchen and the dogtrot is entirely separate from that of the original pen. If they had been built simultaneously, even if by different people, the sills would almost certainly have been continuous the length of the structure or, at least, lapped and pegged where they joined.
Like most historic houses, the Carnes House is the product of a number of additions and alterations. Rarely have early log houses survived totally unaltered since, more often than not, the intent from the beginning was to improve and expand the original log building by numerous changes and additions. The famed British naval officer Basil Hall, travelling through east Georgia in the 1820s, noting the primitive character of a log residence that he visited, interviewed the owner who explained what was, in effect, a typical evolution that occurred with many pioneer houses:
When he [the owner] first began farming in the woods, he had lived in the small log-house which I saw in the back court adjoining the kitchen. In the course of time, as more land was cleared, and his means were thereby increased, he had been enabled to build the new house which we were in, close to the roadside. I asked him how he came to have no windows in it. “Oh,” said he, “we never make the windows in the first instance, but build up the walls with the logs, and then go into that matter; but I hope, in the course of the year, to put in a couple of glazed windows. After which, I shall go on gradually till I make it all comfortable.”
The Carnes House is unusual in that so few of the typical improvements, such as installation of more windows or exterior siding and enclosure of the dogtrot, were ever made. On the interior walls, boards were nailed across the gaps between the logs, but that may not have occurred until the 1850s. Not until after the Civil War did the Carnes panel the floor, ceiling and walls of the original log pen with tongue-and-groove boards and add stairs to the loft which, however, remained unfinished. In contrast, the kitchen was never improved in any sort of substantial way, except for the installation of battens over the gaps between the logs and, in the late nineteenth century, installation of a wood-burning stove.
Except for the single, small window sash that was installed in the original pen, perhaps along with the paneling, the three other window openings in the house have never been more than simple, shuttered openings in the walls. The original fireplace and chimney, which may have been a primitive log chimney, was replaced with a fine stone chimney in the late nineteenth century, perhaps also in conjunction with the paneling.
The wood-framed addition at the rear of the house may have been present in some form at an early date but the present board-and-batten siding appears to date to the late nineteenth or early twentieth century and it has never had interior wall finishes. Much of this addition was in such poor condition that it was substantially rebuilt when the building was repaired in 1999.
The original roof was replaced by a then-modern, machine-sawn, wood-shingled roof in the late 19th century, and a metal roof replaced the wood shingles in the early twentieth century.
Electric lighting was installed in the 1930s or 1940s, but no other historic improvements can be noted, since the house is reported to have been abandoned in the mid-1950s. Shortly before the County acquired the site in 1987, a new metal roof was installed on the house, but there were no other improvements to the building or to the site until 1999.
Original Log Pen
Figure 7 View of north end of Carnes House.
Figure 8. View of west side of Carnes House.
Measuring about 18' east-to-west and 22' north-to-south, the log pen at the north end of the building is the oldest portion of the house. The log walls rise to a height of about 10'-4" and are made up of twelve logs, mostly pine, each 8-10" in diameter, hewn roughly square, and joined by half-dovetailed joints at the corners. The sill at the front of the house is oak, roughly hewn to about 10" square; the original back sill was replaced, probably in the late nineteenth century, by a circular-sawn timber, also oak but only 9" by 9". Sills are set on stacked, stone piers placed at the four corners. The foundation appears to have been underpinned with stacked stone cribbing that survives intact only around the southeast corner of the pen.
Gable ends are built up with logs as well and, as noted above, the roof is put up with log purlins, 5” or 6" in diameter, left in the round but flattened slightly on top. These run end to end (north to south) in the building and, at the north end, extend about 3½' beyond the end walls to form a shelter for the chimney. A wood-shingled roof was installed in the late nineteenth century using slab-sawn, pine decking nailed to split-oak battens attached perpendicularly to the purlins. Only a few parts remain of the wood-shingled roofing, which was replaced in the early twentieth century by galvanized metal sheets. That metal roofing was removed (most of it remained in a pile behind the house until 1999) and replaced by the existing corrugated metal roof in the early 1980s after the County acquired the site.
There is no evidence that the logs were ever chinked, a not uncommon omission in the South where, even in the harsher climate of the Smoky Mountains, log houses were sometimes left without chinking. Instead, boards or slabs were nailed horizontally to the interior face of the logs to cover the significant gaps that were left between the individual logs. In the case of the Carnes House, these boards cannot have been even a part of the original construction, since their circular-saw marks indicate that they were installed after the 1840s. Moss and other materials besides clay was sometimes used for chinking but it is also possible that the circular-sawn battens indicate that the house is not as old as generally assumed.
Figure 9. View southwest in log pen.
Figure 10. View north in log pen.
Figure 11. View south in log pen.
Until the interior was paneled in the late nineteenth century, the log pen appears to have had no other real interior finishes. The floor consisted of nine logs, 9" to 11" in diameter, left in the round but hewn flat on top. Floor boards, which still survive under the later flooring, were plain, pine, 10" to 12" wide. There are nine ceiling joists, each hand-hewn and planed to about 3½" to 4" by 4½" to 5", but there is no evidence of any original ceiling boards.
The floor, walls, and ceiling on the interior of the original pen are paneled with tongue-and-groove, pine boards, ⅞" thick and with a face 3¼" wide. The boards are installed against 1⅞" x 3¾" studs on about 48” centers. Circular-sawn and installed with machine-cut nails, the material appears to date to the last quarter of the nineteenth century.
Contemporaneous with the paneling is the unusual staircase in the northeast corner of the pen. It consists of six steps, each with a 11½" rise to each 9¼" tread. The risers are set at an angle that, with the rise of each step, produces an almost ladder-like staircase. The stringers are closed by paneling which extends to the floor to create a small closet underneath the staircase. The opening to the closet is 22" by 48" and appears never to have had a door. In the loft, there is no evidence that floor boards have ever been nailed to the hewn joists, although boards were probably laid without nails, since these lofts were typically used as a sleeping area, usually for the children.
A single window opening is located on the east side of the fireplace. While there may have been an opening at that location from the beginning, the existing 9-light, fixed sash, 27" wide and 33" high, may not have been installed until later, perhaps along with the paneled interior. The cabin has both front and back doors, which were probably original features of the house. The door to the dog-trot was probably added at the time the kitchen and dogtrot were constructed. The front door measures 2'-10" by 5'-11"; the back door, 2'-8" by 5'-6"; the door to the dogtrot, 2'-9" by 5'-8". Both surviving doors (the dogtrot door is missing) are constructed of plain boards, cross-braced on the inside, and nailed with machine-cut nails.
The existing chimney at the north end of the pen is almost certainly not original to the house. Built of roughly-dressed stone set in a lime-based mortar, it is similar to the mid- to late-19th century stone chimneys that still stand on other parts of the Preserve. This chimney probably replaced an earlier chimney that may have been built of wood and mud in a manner that was often found in the earliest of the pioneers’ log cabins. The chimney base rises directly from the ground to a height of about 8½' where the shoulders step into a square shaft that rises another 10' to the top. There is no visible spread footing as is often found with these structures. The stones are all roughly-dressed to rectilinear proportions in varying sizes, with the largest being about 3" by 8" by 12". The interior fire place opening is created by a shallow stone arch and measures about 4'-3" wide, 2'-10" high and 2' deep. The hearth is made up of large, flat stones and both it and the stone fireplace surround have been covered by a lime-based stucco. The mantle shelf is a plain board mounted on triangular brackets.
Two curious holes have been cut through the paneling of the front wall between the front door and the dog trot. Allowing visibility through the space between the third and fourth logs of the front wall, both are located about 30" from the floor, with the one close to the door measuring about 3" by 4" and the other, which is located about midway of the wall between the door and the dogtrot, measuring about 2" by 6". While the National Register information suggests that these may have been “gun holes,” presumably for fending off Indian attacks, that is probably not the case. The fact that these holes were cut through the late-nineteenth century paneling indicates that their purpose was more mundane and that they were probably installed simply to allow the Carneses to see who might be approaching the house from either direction without having to open the front door.
Figure 12. View northwest of Carnes House.
The shed-roofed front porch, whose structure is an integral and original part of the log pen, is 7' deep and extends the full width of the original log pen. The plain, sawn floor boards are 10"-12" wide and were laid on two log sleepers that appear to have been set directly on the ground. The center sleeper is an undressed log, flattened on the top; the outer or front sleeper was also log, roughly hewn to a square dimension. The fact that the existing floor boards appear to be mid- to late-nineteenth century in origin could indicate that the porch floor itself was a later addition to the house.
The porch roof structure, most of which is an original feature of the house, is supported by the top logs of the end walls of the house which are extended from the front wall and joined by a hewn header, roughly 8" by 6" and pegged to the extended side logs. The header supports a mixture of rafters and slab-sawn decking, at least some of which may have replaced earlier material. Most of the rafters appear to have been chosen, worked and installed in a rather haphazard way and, along with the presence of saw milled 2" by 4" rafters, may be an indication that these materials were installed late in the nineteenth or early twentieth century, perhaps when the first metal roof was installed. The original posts that support the roof were probably undressed cedar posts set on rocks placed directly on the ground. These appear to have been replaced by the present sawn 4" by 4" timbers in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century, perhaps when the wood floor was installed. A plain board shelf, about 1" by 9", was installed between the two posts on the south end of the porch at the same time.
Kitchen and Dog Trot
Figure 13. View west of dog trot.
Figure 14. View west in kitchen pen.
Figure 15. View of northeast corner of kitchen pen.
Figure 16. View of east and south sides of kitchen pen.
The kitchen (12' by 18') and dog trot (6'-8" by 18') are part of a single log structure that abuts but is not attached to the original log pen. Oak sills, hewn to about 9" by 9", are set on stacked stone piers and extend beneath the front and rear of the dogtrot. These sills support the walls which are composed of nine logs that rise to a height of about 8'-6" on the front and rear and continue to about 12'-3" at the top of the gables on each side of the structure. As with the original pen, the logs in the kitchen are mostly pine. Oak was used for the top logs on either side of the pen, which extend about 16" to support the lower roof purlins. The supporting logs are chamfered at the ends, a detail not found on the original log pen.
The roof purlins are pine logs, left in the round, and extending about 3½' to the south to shelter a now-missing chimney and about 6'-8" to the north to provide a roof for the dog trot. In addition the top three wall logs on the front and on the rear were also extended over the dogtrot which created low openings that were barely 5'-8" high. The lower log on the east (front) end of the dog trot has been removed. The roof is similar to that on the original pen, including split oak battens, slab-sawn decking, and remnants of a machine-sawn, wood shingle roof.
A fireplace opening, 6'-9" high by 4'-10" wide, in the center of the south wall is now covered by boards nailed over the outside of the opening. The chimney has disappeared although there are remnants of red clay mortar between the logs above the opening and a shallow pile of rubble and stone at the base. At least some of the large hearth stones remain under the floor. Although the kitchen fireplace was replaced or augmented by a wood-burning stove in the southwest corner of the kitchen some time after the Civil War, the chimney itself may have remained standing until well into the twentieth century.
Log joists and plain sawn boards complete the floor of the pen. Horizontal battens cover the interstices between the logs, including in the gable ends and there is no evidence that the space ever had a ceiling. A pair of poles span the south side of the pen and appear to have been installed to support a short brick or stone chimney for a wood-stove.
The room is entered by two door openings: a 3'-4" by 5'-6" opening from the dogtrot and a 2'-9" by 5'-6" opening on the front (east side) of the pen. Only the front door, constructed like the doors in the original pen, remains in place. Two small “window” openings flank the fire place opening: a 15"-square opening, set about 24" from the floor on the east side and a rectangular opening, 10" x 14", 29" from the floor, on the west side. Neither opening has been glazed although wood shutters may have been present at one time.
The dogtrot is also floored with plain-sawn boards which are supported by four log joists running the length (east-to-west) of the dogtrot. A series of bored holes with large pegs can be seen on the floor near the kitchen door; their purpose has not been determined unless they were originally used in place of nails to fasten the boards in place. If so, they are not found except in front of the doors. Pairs of similar holes were also drilled in the several of the logs on either side of the door into the original log pen. These probably held short pegs or dowels which were used to warp yarn for weaving cloth.
Figure 17. View of north end of rear addition.
The rear addition, measuring about 9' by 21', spans the rear of the kitchen and dogtrot and is attached at its northeast corner to the west wall of the original log pen. Although it must have functioned as a separate room, this addition does not include any wall across the rear (west) end of the open dogtrot. A door opens near the center of the west side of the addition and a shuttered, unglazed window opening lights the south end of the space.
Most of the north wall of the addition has been lost, apparently to rot that occurred in conjunction with damage to the southwest corner of original log pen.The addition contains an interesting mixture of construction methods and techniques. Sills, headers and posts are hewn square; log joists are hewn flat on top; and the joists are set on a sash-sawn ledger pegged to the kitchen sill. The walls and roof, however, are framed with a variety of sawn lumber, most of it full-dimensioned 2" by 4" put up with wire nails but also including some sash-sawn material and cut nails. The character of this addition and other alterations to the house suggests that the Carneses used sawn materials and nails left over from earlier projects or else salvaged and recycled from elsewhere.
The walls are not studded but have only an open framework against which the exterior board-and-batten siding was installed. The boards are circular-sawn, mostly about 12" wide, and finished with 1" by 4" battens using wire nails. There is no evidence for interior wall or ceiling boards in this space.
Figure 18. View east of corn crib.
Figure 19. View northeast of corn crib.
Located on the east side of the road about 285' south of the house, the corn crib is a wood-framed structure with a metal roof that appears to date to the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. The structure measures about 10'-6" x 20'-5", rising to about 10' on the sides and 12-1/2' on the gabled end. The building is constructed on log sleepers that are set on stones and which support log floor joists and a board floor. The walls and roof of the building are framed with circular-sawn posts, studs and roof purlins. The exterior is finished with horizontal boards, 3"-4" wide and spaced about 2" apart in order to provide ventilation for the crops stored inside. The structure is divided into two, unequally-sized spaces by a simple boarded partition set about 6-1/2' from the south end of the structure. A small door (about 2' x 4') on the west side of the structure opens to the larger pen; a similar door at the south end opened to the smaller pen but is now missing. Above the door on the west side is another opening with a bottom-hinged door, presumably so that the pen could be filled from the top with hay or fodder.
Figure 20. View east of corn crib.
Across the road and a few feet further south from the corn crib is a dirt-floored, log barn that appears to have been built for animal shelter. It measures about 12' x 21' and is put up with 7"-8" logs, V-notched at the corners. The shed roof of the structure has log rafters, 2" x 4" purlins, and a metal roof that may be contemporaneous with the first metal roof on the main house. The roof slopes from the south wall, which is about 8' high, to the north wall, which is about 6' high. A log wall divides the structure into two pens, the eastern pen being slightly smaller than the other. Both pens are entered through low doors on the south side and the eastern pen has a wooden feed trough attached to the east wall. Because of the collapsed roof, the interior of the western pen could not be investigated. Because of the building's advanced state of decay, restoration is not possible, although the building might, with further investigation, be accurately reconstructed. One of the author's recommendations in the original report was that a free-standing roof be erected to simply shield the ruins from the elements, which was carried out the following year.
1. Historical data on the family has been taken the Federal censuses and from <http://www. jimharrisononline.com/Genealogyfamily/notes/not0000.html>.
2. The area was annexed into Douglas County, when it was created in 1870.
3. Mills B. Lane, editor, The Rambler in Georgia (Savannah: Beehive Press, 1973), p. 77.
4. A local resident interviewed by the author moved to the area in the early 1950s and remembered these last tenants who, he reported, made much of their living making moonshine in the woods nearby and were living in the house as late as 1955